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For other uses, see Porridge (disambiguation).
Havregrød på vand.JPG
A bowl of oat porridge
Serving temperature Hot
Main ingredients Starchy plants (e.g. grain), water or milk, flavourings
Porridge (also historically spelled porage, porrige, parritch) is a food commonly eaten as a breakfast cereal dish, made by boiling ground, crushed or chopped starchy plants—typically grain—in water or milk. It is often cooked or served with added flavorings such as sugar, honey, fruit or syrup to make a sweet cereal or mixed with spices or vegetables to make a savoury dish. It is usually served hot in a bowl.
1 Type of grains
3 Conventional uses
4 Nutrition and health benefits
5.3.1 Types of oats
6.1 Northern Europe
7 See also
9 External links
Type of grains
Cooked oatmeal in a bowl
The term "porridge" is often used specifically for oat porridge, which is eaten for breakfast with salt, sugar, fruit, milk, cream or butter and sometimes other flavorings. Oat porridge is also sold in ready-made or partly cooked form as an instant breakfast.
Other grains used for porridge include rice, wheat, barley, corn, triticale and buckwheat. Many types of porridge have their own names, such as polenta, grits and kasha.
Porridge is a staple food in much of Africa and historically was also a staple in much of Northern Europe and Russia.
Porridge is easy to digest, so it is traditionally used in many cultures as a food for the sick and is often eaten by athletes in training.
Nutrition and health benefits
The high nutrition levels in porridge oats have led it to be labelled as a superfood.
Porridge oats, as with many whole-grain cereals, are high in fibre – especially beta-glucan, and are a rich source of vitamins, minerals and antioxidans. In fact, whole oats are one of the few known sources of a unique group of antioxidants called avenanthramides, which are believed to have protective effects against heart disease.
A 2014 study by the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition found that a daily intake of at least 3 grams of oat β-glucan lowers total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels by 5-10% in people with normal or elevated blood cholesterol levels. β-glucan lowers cholesterol by increasing the viscosity of digesta in the small intestine, although cholesterol reduction is greater in those with higher total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol in their blood.
Porridge oats are also rich in B Vitamins, which are vital for nervous system and brain function, along with Selenium – an important antioxidant for healthy brain chemistry, DNA repair and is associated with a reduced risk of colon cancer. Ferulic acid, which is also prominent in porridge oats, is also known to be an antioxidant that protects the colon from cancer. Research into the anti-inflammatory effects of porridge oats is ongoing, but there have already been positive indicators that regular consumption could prevent inflammation related to a number of chronic diseases, owing to the high avenanthramide levels.
Porridge is often recommended for weight loss due to its low calorie count – at 171 calories per bowl – and its low glycemic index (GI) means they increase blood sugar levels gradually and over a longer period of time, reducing hunger and the likelihood of eating less healthy snacks.
Further information: List of porridges
Porridge as sold in German supermarkets
Atole, a Mexican dish of corn flour in water or milk.
Champurrado (a chocolate-based atole), a Mexican blend of sugar, milk, chocolate and corn dough or corn flour. The Philippine dish tsampurado is similar, with rice instead of maize.
Cir, Păsat or (when firmer) Mămăligă are all Romanian maize porridges.
Cornmeal mush, a traditional dish in southern and mid-Atlantic US states.
Gachas, a Spanish porridge of maize or grass peas. Often garnished with roasted almonds and croutons of bread fried in olive oil.
Gofio, a Canary Islands porridge of toasted coarse-ground maize. Made from roasted sweetcorn and other grains (e.g., wheat, barley or oats), used in many ways in parts of the world to which Canary Islanders have emigrated.
Grits, ground hominy, is common in the southern United States, traditionally served with butter, salt and black pepper. Sometimes, it is also served with cheese.
Kachamak, a maize porridge from the Balkans.
Mazamorra, a maize porridge from Colombia.
Polenta, an Italian maize porridge which is cooked to a solidified state and sliced for serving.
Rubaboo is made from dried maize and peas with animal fat and was a staple food of the Voyageurs.
Shuco, a Salvadoran dish of black, blue or purple corn flour, ground pumpkin seeds, chili sauce and red cooked kidney beans, which was traditionally drunk out of a hollowed-out gourd at early morning, especially coming from a hunting or drinking trip.
Suppawn, also called, and better known as, hasty pudding, was common in American colonial times and consisted of cornmeal boiled with milk into a thick porridge. Still eaten in modern times, it is no longer necessarily corn-based.
Uji, a thick East African porridge made most commonly from corn flour mixed with sorghum and many other different ground cereals, with milk or butter and sugar or salt. Ugali, a more solid meal, is also made from maize flour, likewise often mixed with other cereals. These two, under various names, are staple foods over a wide part of the African continent, e.g., pap in South Africa, sadza in Zimbabwe, nshima in Zambia, tuwo or ogi in Nigeria, etc., though some of these may also be made from sorghum.
Žganci, a maize porridge prepared in the Kajkavian countries and Slovenia.
Mielie Pap, is a maize porridge staple in South African cuisine.
Foxtail millet porridge is a staple food in northern China.
A porridge made from pearl millet is the staple food in Niger and surrounding regions of the Sahel.
Oshifima or otjifima, a stiff pearl millet porridge, is the staple food of northern Namibia.
Middle Eastern millet porridge, often seasoned with cumin and honey.
Munchiro sayo, a millet porridge eaten by the Ainu, a native people of northern Japan.
Milium in aqua was a millet porridge made with goat's milk that was eaten in ancient Rome.
Koozh is a millet porridge commonly sold in Tamil Nadu.
Porridge oats before cooking
Oatmeal with raisins, butter, chopped walnuts, cinnamon, brown sugar, and shredded coconut all mixed in
Oat porridge, traditional and common in the English-speaking world, Germany and the Nordic countries. Oat porridge has been found in the stomachs of 5,000-year-old Neolithic bog bodies in Central Europe and Scandinavia. Varieties of oat porridge include:
Groats, a porridge made from unprocessed oats or wheat.
Gruel, very thin porridge, often drunk rather than eaten.
Yod Kerc'h, a traditional oat porridge from the north-west of France, primarily Brittany, made with oats, butter and water or milk.
Owsianka, an east European (Russia, Poland, Belarus, Ukraine) traditional breakfast made with hot milk, oats and sometimes with sugar and butter.
Porridge made from rolled oats or ground oatmeal is common in the UK, Ireland, Australia, New Zealand, North America, Finland and Scandinavia. It is known as simply "porridge" or, more commonly in the United States and Canada, "oatmeal". In the US, oat and wheat porridge can both be called "hot cereal". Rolled oats are commonly used in England, oatmeal in Scotland and steel-cut oats